Exemptions for the poor are only given to a very small extend. This is due to the underfunding of public facilities and the low moral of staff that did not increase by topping up their salaries from the cost-sharing income. In the afternoons, the same staff earns in the grey market or shadow economy of health care. An excellent programme for cost-recovery of drugs by means of a drug fund for essential drugs fell into the trap of mismanagement and corruption. The very good government cost exemption scheme for chronic and catastrophic diseases was not enforced properly. The result is a high private spending at the time of use.
• high spending for avoidable diseases
• high spending for catastrophic cases
• high spending for treatment abroad
• high spending for drugs
• high spending for informal, under-the-table payments.